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托福阅读|TPO40-49长难句解析精选

来源:环球教育    时间:2017-06-14    浏览量:321

托福学习培训

      托福阅读没有什么技巧,每日积累才是最重要的。通过每日长难句的学习,积累单词 提高阅读速度。今天学习一下长难句的划分,理清长句子语法结构,对不管是阅读还是写作的学习,都有非常大的帮助。

TPO40-49 长难句精选01


Geographic isolation creates opportunities for new species to develop, but it does not necessarily lead to new species because speciation occurs only when the gene pool undergoes enough changes to establish reproductive barriers between the isolated population and its parent population. 

【必背生词】
isolation:  one group, person, or thing is separate from others.
speciation: speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise.
gene pool: the gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species. 

【整句结构】

并列复合句

句1 Geographic isolation creates opportunities for new species to develop,

句2 but it does not necessarily lead to new species because speciation occurs only when the gene pool undergoes enough changes to establish reproductive barriers between the isolated population and its parent population. 

      *其中句2含有because引导的原因状从和when引导的时间状从。

【逐步分析】

句1中 
geograhic isolation 主语, creates 谓语,opportunities 宾语, for new species 介词结构作定语,to develop, 目的状语。本部分意思:地理隔离创造了新物种发展的机会。 

句子2 
主句部分 :
but it does not necessarily lead to new species 
it 主语,指代geographic isolation, does not necessarily lead:谓语部分, to new species:宾语。本部分意思:但它不一定会导致新物种

原因状语从句:
because speciation occurs 
speciation是主语,occurs 谓语。
本部分意思:因为新物种的出现(产生)。

时间状语从句:
when the gene pool undergoes enough changes to establish reproductive barriers between the isolated population and its parent population. 
the gene pool,主语;undergoes,作谓语;enough changes 宾语。
to establish 状语。其中,reproductive barriers是establish的宾语。
between the isolated population and its parent population,介词结构作定语,说明是isolated population 和 its population之间的障碍。

      本部分意思:因为只有当基因库产生足够的变化,使得分割种群与其总群之间产生繁殖障碍时。

【整句翻译】

      地理隔离创造了新物种发展的机会,但它不一定会导致新物种,因为只有当基因库产生足够的变化,使得分割种群与其总群之间产生繁殖障碍时才会产生新的物种。

TPO40-49 长难句精选02

The problems that were faced and solved in Athens were the sharing of political power between the established aristocracy and the emerging other classes, and the adjustment of aristocratic ways of life to the ways of life of the new polis. 

【必背生词】

aristocracy: the people in the highest social class, who traditionally have a lot of land, money, and power.
emerging:in an early state of development
polis:  希腊城邦

【整句结构】

复合句
主句中,包含that引导的定语从句。

【逐步分析】

      The problems(定语从句:that were faced and solved in Athens) were the sharing of political power between the established aristocracy and the emerging other classes, and the adjustment of aristocratic ways of life to the ways of life of the new polis. 

      主句中,the problems 是主语,。problems后接定语从句,从句中,that作主语,指的是problems,were faced and solved 是谓语, in Athens, 状语。从句后面的were the sharing…. and the adjustment…. 这些部分都是主句中的系表结构,作谓语部分。 本部分的意思是:雅典面对和解决的问题是...

      表语1部分: the sharing of political power between the established aristocracy and the emerging other classes中,of political power 介词结构作定语,说明分享的是政治权利。 between the established aristocracy and the emerging other classes,依然是介词结构作定语,说明是哪两类人群在分享政治权利。本部分的意思为:现存的贵族和新兴的其他阶级之间的政治权利的分享.

      表语2部分:the adjustment of aristocratic ways of life to the ways of life of the new polis. of aristocratic ways of life 定语修饰adjustment, to the ways of life of the new polis 还是定语,依然修饰adjustment,其中of the new polis 定语,修饰the ways of life. 本部分意思为:贵族们针对新城邦的生活方式对自己生活方式进行调整。

【整句翻译】

      雅典面对和解决的问题是:现存的贵族和新兴的其他阶级之间的政治权利的分享,以及贵族们针对新城邦的生活方式对自己的生活方式进行调整。

本文转自考虫托福


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